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DOI: 10.5146/tjpath.2020.01480
Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia in Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection: A Challenging Case Report
Selin KESTEL KAYIK, Elif ACAR, Leyla MEMỮ
Department of Pathology, Gazi University, School of Medicine, ANKARA, TURKEY
Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Pneumocystis pneumonia, HIV

Pneumocystis jirovecii is a potentially life-threatening opportunistic pathogen particularly affecting the lungs, mainly in immunosuppressed individuals and HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 cell count. A 50-year-old man presented with a 1-week history of pleuritic chest pain and fever. He was also hypoxic with oxygen saturation of 86% on room air. Detailed clinical history revealed that he had fatigue, dyspnea, night sweats, generalized bone pain and a loss of about 10 kg in weight over the past six months without intention. Chest imaging showed diffuse bilateral infiltrates. Diagnostic bronchoscopy was performed. Transbronchial biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage were received simultaneously. The presence of P. jirovecii was suspected in hematoxylin-eosin-stained slides, and Gomori’s methenamine silver stain was used to confirm the diagnosis. A blood test revealed dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism, increased plasma levels of the gonadotropins and positive HIV antibodies with a CD4+ cell count of 48/μL. CMV co-infection was found with CMV viral load of 6738 copies/ml in plasma. Herein, we present a case with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) that led to a new diagnosis of Human immonudeficiency virus. As in our case, diagnosis of disease through the pathological examination of tissues (biopsy samples) or bodily fluids could lead to the recognition of an unrevealed HIV-infection.

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