Turkish Journal of Pathology

Türk Patoloji Dergisi

Turkish Journal of Pathology

Turkish Journal of Pathology

E-pub Ahead Of Print

Bronchiectatic Actinomycosis with Osseous Metaplasia Masquerading as Lung Cancer

Archana BHAT 1, Manjunath J 1, Don MASCARENHAS 1

1 Department of Pathology, Father Muller Medical College, MANGALORE, INDIA

DOI: 10.5146/tjpath.2024.13407
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Bronchial involvement in pulmonary actinomycosis is rare and has been reported in the literature rarely. However, these reports describe endobronchial actinomycosis secondary to foreign body aspiration (for example, a fish bone). Our case did not have any history or clinical evidence suggesting foreign body aspiration, which makes it even more rare.

A 55-year-old woman presented with complaints of on and off haemoptysis and cough for three weeks. In view of the haemoptysis and consolidation seen on imaging, a bronchoalveolar lavage was done and sent for cytological assessment. Few atypical cells with nuclear hyperchromasia and prominent nucleoli were noted. In view of the persistent haemoptysis, worsening symptoms, and non-resolution of the consolidation despite antibiotics, and the finding of atypical cells, segmental resection was done. A final diagnosis of bronchiectatic actinomycosis with osseous metaplasia was given. The patient was started on prolonged antibiotics with good response and recovery.

Other risk factors associated with pulmonary actinomycosis include alcoholism, diabetes, haematological diseases, human immunodeficiency viral infection, use of immunosuppressants, and rarely chronic lung diseases, such as bronchiectasis. Our case had this rare association of bronchiectasis with bronchial actinomycosis.

Bronchiectatic actinomycosis is a rare infection and it can mimic several lung disorders like unresolving pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, foreign body, and even lung tumours. The pathologists and clinicians should be aware of this entity and thus help in the early diagnosis and better management of patients with this disease.

Keywords : Diagnostics, Infection, Pneumonia, Haemoptysis, Consolidation