Objective: SMARCA4-deficient undifferentiated tumor (SMARCA4-UT) is a highly malignant neoplasm with an undifferentiated or rhabdoid phenotype, posing a diagnostic challenge. This case report aims to create awareness about this rare neoplasm while dealing with cases presenting with undifferentiated morphology.
Case Report: A 55-year-old gentleman with constitutional symptoms and lymphadenopathy. Imaging revealed a mass lesion in the right upper lobe of the lung. A biopsy of the cervical lymph node showed diffusely effaced architecture replaced by sheets of undifferentiated pleomorphic cells with vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, eosinophilic cytoplasm, and multiple necrotic foci. An extensive immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel was applied, which showed positivity for synaptophysin, vimentin, and focal CD34 and EMA expression. Other markers like pan-cytokeratin, p40, TTF1, CD56, INSM1, calretinin, CD45, SOX10, S100, CD30, CD117, SMA, and Desmin were negative, with INI1 retained. The IHC panel excluded the morphological differentials of carcinoma, lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, melanoma, and germ cell tumor. Further literature review led to the possibility of the SMARCA4-UT entity, which had a morphology and IHC profile similar to the present case. Testing for SMARCA4 (BRG-1) by IHC showed a complete loss in the tumor cells, favoring the diagnosis of Thoracic SMARCA4-deficient undifferentiated tumor (SMARCA4-UT).
Conclusion: SMARCA4-UTs are rare, highly aggressive, and poorly differentiated thoracic tumors. Recognizing them is vital as there is potential for therapeutic interventions such as immunotherapy and SMARCA4-targeted therapies, offering promising prospects for the future.